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Bibliographic Citations using MLA Style  

This is a guide to citing print and online materials using the current 2009 MLA style.
Last Updated: May 1, 2015 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

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About the New MLA Style

The Modern Language Association released the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition) in 2009. These are the major changes from previous editions:

  • No More Underlining! MLA now recommends italicizing titles of independently published works (books, periodicals, films, etc).
  • No More URLs! While website entries will still include authors, article names, and website names, when available, MLA no longer requires URLs. Add a URL ONLY if you cannot find the item using a Google search.
  • Publication Medium. Every entry receives a medium-of-publication marker. Most entries will be listed as Print or Web, but other possibilities include Performance, DVD, or TV. Most of these markers will appear at the end of entries; however, markers for Web sources are followed by the date of access.
  • New Abbreviations. Many web source entries now require a publisher name, a date of publication, and/or page numbers. When no publisher name appears on the website, write "n.p." for no publisher given. When sites omit a date of publication, write "n.d." for no date. For online journals that appear only online (no print version) or on databases that do not provide pagination, write "n. pag." for no pagination.
  • Indentations. When you reach a second line in your citation, indent by 5 spaces.
  • Download a complete 6-page pdf of examples!

Online help with MLA

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